Thursday, December 6, 2012

1991 Peacemaking Chapter on peacemaking and religion

I haven't looked back at my closing chapter to the 1991 volume Richard Quinney co-edited in at least a decade.  But the fact that I outed my religiosity "professionally" for the first time in my December 3 letter I posted on this blog celebrating peacemaking in Trinidad and the Holy Land, and have gotten no response from any of the number of places I sent save one from a Caribbean mediator, led me to recall that I had been openly called for a reunification of religion and enlightenment "science" as a path toward peace.  I am reminded that the 5th International Conference on Penal Abolition had just ended, a group which was a partial source for the book.  I was surprised to discover that the stories of peacemaking today may be updated, but my belief in what peacemaking entails academically is unchanged.

I have scanned the contents of Criminology as Peacemaking and the first five pages of my vision of peacemaking, which will be familiar I'm sure to those who hear my vision now.  I smile as I read so names so widely recognized today in so many ways.

I am attaching the scan in pdf in e-mail versions of this blog.  I cannot read in pdf on the blog site, so for those of you who read me here, a text version of the scan, which garbles names and such, is here below.  Love and peace--hal


PREFACE                                                  IX

"''  l'i'JI  by Indiana  University Press

All rights  reserved

No  p 
of Lhis book  may be reproduced or utilized  in any  form or by any  means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any  information storage and  retrieval  system, without permission in writing from  the publisher. The Association of American University Presses' Resolution on Permissions constitutes the only exception to this  prohibition.

The paper used  in this  publication meets  the  minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper  for Printed Library  Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.

Manufactured in the United States  of America

Library  of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Criminclogy as peacemaking I edited by Harold E. Pepinsky and  Richard
Quinney. p.               em. Includes  index.
ISBN 0-25:1-:I!J:\!17-7 (doth); 1 ;1\N ll :'',_\  'lll>'>'lt,  11>1>1-  l
I. Crintinology     Mt·llwd"l")',\'       I    1',.1''"··1· ,.  11..,.1o1  I II  1_111111111' \".    I" I'·", I
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Part I. Religious and Humanist  Peacemaking

1.  The Way of Peace: On Crime,  Suffering, and  Service
Richard Quinney                                                                       3

2.  Radical Criminology and  the Overcoming of Alienation: Perspectives from  Marxian  and  Gandhian Humanism
Kevin Anderson                                                                     14

3.  Reconciliation and  the Mutualist Model  of Community
J. Peter  Cardella                                                                     30

4.  Homelessness and  the Case for Community-Based Initiatives: The Emergence of a Model Shelter as a Short-Term Response to the  Deepening Crisis in Housing
Gregg Barak                                                                           47

5.  Beyond  the Fear of Crime:  Reconciliation  as the Basis for
Criminal Justice  Policy
Russ lmmarigeon                                                                  69

l'orl II.  f'cmiuist Peacemaking Traditions and Women's

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Battering Women  and  Battering Central Americans: A Peacemaking Synthesis

19.  Taking a Bite Out  of Social Injustice: Crime-Control
Ideology and  Its Peacemaking Potential

Larry L. Tifft and Lyn.  Markham
Lloyd Klein, Joan Luxenburg, and John Gunther



9.  British Left Realism  on the Abuse of Women:  A Critical

Part  IV. The  Peacemaking Choice

WalterS. DeKeseredy and Martin  D. Schwartz                     154                          20.  Peacemaking in Criminology and  Criminal Justice
10.  Peacemaking in Prisons: A Process                                                                                          Harold E. Pepinsky                                                                                                                                                         299
Lila Rucker                                                                            172

11.  Community Solutions to Sexual  Violence: Feminist/Abolitionist Perspectives
Fay Honey Knopp                                                                   181

12.  Mediation in the Criminal Justice  System: Process, Promises, Problems
Maria R. Volpe                                                                     194

Part  III.   Critical Peacemaking Traditions

13.  Images  of Unity  and  Disunity in the Juridic  Subject  and
Movement toward  the  Peacemaking Community
Dragan Milovanovic                                                               209

14.  The Perpetuation of Violence  through Criminological
Theory: The Ideological Role of Subculture Theory
Susan L. Caulfield                                                                 228

15.  The Role of Education in Peacemaking
Peter L. Sanzen                                                                      239

16.  The WJlie  Horton Fact, Faith, and  Commonsense Theory of Crime
John F. Galliher                                                                      245

17.  Crime  Control as Human Rights f nforn'llwlll
1\ol•l'rl   I :ti11s                                                                                                     "•I

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CONTRIBUTORS                                                                                                     329
INDEX                                                                                                                     334

296                                      Critical  Peacemaking

Mendelsohn, Harold, and  G.  J. O'Keefe. 1984. Taking a Bite Out of Crime: The Impact of a  Mass Media Crime Prevention Campaign. Washington, DC: National Insti­ tute  of Justice.
Newsweek. 1989. "When Tenants Take Charge." 27 November: 44.
New York Times. 1988. "Freeze! You're on TV: How  America's  Most  Wanted  has Led
to the Arrest of 22 Fugitives." Frank  Prial, 25 September, p. 56.
New York Times. 1988a. "Do I Look Like a Criminal?" Op-ed column by Dave Pauli, J
October, p. 22.
"Oprah Winfrey."  1989.  October  program on Citizens Self Help  Groups.
Reiman, Jeffrey  H.  1984.  The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison. 2nd  ed.  New
York: Wiley.
Rosenbaum, Dennis (ed.).  1986. Community  Crime Prevention: Does It Work? Beverly
Hills:  Sage.
Rosenbaum, Dennis, Arthur Lurigio,  and  Paul Lavrakas. 1989. "Enhancing Citizl'll
Participation and  Solving  Serious Crime:   A  National Evaluation of  Crinw
Stoppers Programs." Crime and Delinquency 35: 378-400.
Rothman, Jack.  1968.  "Three   Models of  Community  Organization," in  National
Conference on Social Welfare and Social Work Practice, 1968. New York: Columbi.1
University Press.
Rothman, Jack, and  John  E. Tropman. 1987. "Models of Community Organization
and Macro Practice Perspectives: Their  Mixing and  Phasing." In Fred M. Co:-..
John  L. Erlich,   Jack  Rothman, and   John   E.  Tropman  (eds.),   Strategies of
Community  Organization. 4th ed.  Ithasca, Ill.: F. E. Peacock.
Sheley,  Joseph F.  1985.  America's "Crime  Problem": An  Introduction to Criminoloxlt
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Shearing, Clifford, and  Peter  Stenning. 1987. Private Policing. Newbury Park: Sil)',''
"Sixty  Minutes." 1986, 1987. Segment of Citizen  Empowerment.  November,  i'IHI•.
rebroadcast in July, 1987. Columbia Broadcasting Company.
Skogan, Wesley  G.  1986.  "Disorder, Crime  and  Community Decline." In S 
Marry,  Urban Danger: Life in a Neighborhood  of Strangers. Philadelphia: Tt'llll d··
University Press.
Time Magazine. 1989. "On  the Front  Lines." 11 September: 14-18.

P     A     R     T

F    0    U R

The Peacemalcing Choice

Harold E. Pepinsky

T W   E N T Y

Peacemaking  in Criminology and
Crin1inal Justice

everal  years  ago,  responding to an early  draft  of a study 1 had  written on "responsiveness" in Norway  (Pepinsky,  1988), Richard  Quinney wrote  me Ihat he thought peacemaking was the  direction criminology ought to move,
I hat  he  sensed  wide   but  scarcely  visible  interest in  the  subject   among
'riminologists, and  that  we ought to do something about it. Kevin Ander­
·.on pitched  in and  did  much  of the  work,  so that over a three-year period
,,.,. had a series  of sessions on  peacemaking at the annual meetings of the
\ llll'fican Society  of Criminology. Richard  and  I called for relevant essays,
'' hich now comprise this volume. Some of the talented authors herein gave
11:. I heir essays  at the outset, enough to show  Indiana University Press  that
'' would have a coherent work.  They have since updated and revised their
"' •1k; and   we  thank  them, and   indeed  all  our  contributors,  for  their
1    •.II l<'lll'l'  and  effort.
I :.1 e:pect that these  l'Ssays are a representative sampling of peacemaking
,,  .,·,m·h <1rnong span="span" style="letter-spacing: -.75pt;"> tho.·:<'  id<'lllifying  themselves as  North  American crimi­
""1")',1:;1.·;.  Tlwy  o  .1111 11"1 '·d  i 11   IPtlgstanding traditions of thought and
,, 111111      l'ltt<'<'  ,·,11··)·,••111".  '" il. :;l.tttd olll  in lhis collection-religious t,,,,llillllt:.,   
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300                                                                                   The Peacemaking Choice

Fifth  International Conference on  Penal  Abolition (ICOPA),  I discovered that by far the strongest contingent among the hundreds of correspondents are  workers and activists with religious affiliations, notably the  peace churches and  ecumenical peace  groups. Religiously self-identified people cross  all  eight   intellectual traditions which  have  emerged:  academicians and   theorists, activists   and  reformers, feminists, lawmakers, mediators, native traditionalists, peoples of color, and  prisoners. The National  People's of Color  Task Force  on  Criminal Justice  has  simply  merged itself into  the Interreligious Task Force on Criminal Justice; and  one of its former  leaders, the  Reverend Matthew Stephens,  a prison chaplain in Ohio, is its coordi­ nator.   Each  of  the   eight   traditions has  its  own   international networks. ICOPA  participants and  correspondents represent the  pacifists  of criminal
I find  to my  surprise that  many  of the  peacemaking criminologists and
many ICOPA  people are  completely unaware of  one  another, although among the contributors in this volume, Kay Harris, Russ Immarigeon, and Fay Honey Knopp have also been active in ICOPA. We have paid a price fm specialization and  advanced data-processing capabilities in this informati1 )II age.  If you  look  in  a  standard college   text  for  criminology or  crimin.d justice,  the vast literature cited there will scarcely  if at all include any  nolii ,. of  activities   of  members of  the  ICOPA  network.  For  that  matter, nw:ol ICOPA  members find   little  reason to  read   mainstream  criminology '•I criminal justice  research-journals. The result  is that  most  ICOPA memlw1 :. do  not see  much room  for their  kind  of knowledge and  inquiry on collq•,•· campuses, and  even   the  most  progressive criminologists feel  nothing 1·· being  done to provide alternatives to prison, let alone  punishment. lk t···, tp  the  time  when information and  ideas  are  freely  shared  between  tlw··· communities! The  problem is  not  that  peacemaking in  criminology .t11d criminal justice is new  and  untested; the  problem is our  ignorance ol  tlw vast amount that is being  thought and  done by peacemakers in crimi1wlor.1 and  criminal justice.
We suffer  another level of collective  ignorance-the connection lli'hv•·•·1•
crime and punishment on the one  hand and  war on  the other.  Then· i:, ,,,.,, 1   ·' vast  community of scholars and  activists  in peace  studies, as rcpn·:;o· tlnl for instance by the International Peace Research  Association. I•· '' ttl I• I •I
no easier either to get criminologists into  peace studies or to gel :>lttd• 'I tl·   •" peace  to  show interest in  criminology than   to gd ICOI';\ JtH'Inlwt·. ·"''' criminologists together. Specialization gets  in llw   way  .1g.ti11  I       1'""   d several groups which consistently lr
this hn-.wlt: (I) 1 ,..., ·  It Ill• (,, (see  the  chapters by CordeiL1  ;md  lmm.Jri)',l'tlll), (:1 )    r.Hh,.d  l<'llllltl·.l· 1        particularly Llw ch<1 span="span">piers  by  I I;1r1 i·;; ( ·.1 n II)', ' ll.1    I." I lott. d.l .111d  I IIIIIIJ .t" t•
Knopp, who  joim. (_ht.tkt•n·;ln "·lilt  io·ltttlll'·llt). (   '.)   ltttiiLIItt·.l·.  (·,,      II"
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Peacemaking                                                                                              301

peace studies and  in criminology. Each offers a solid, well thought-out, and researched foundation for all groups working for peace to come  together.
Happily, you  will find  that  the  contributors to this  volume  are  broadly
active  and  informed about issues  of peace  and  war. There  is a wealth  of material  herein about related  work which  belongs  in criminology but as yet is  not  often  found  there. We criminologists  just  need   to  begin   to look beyond the end  of our  collective  nose.
What  is the  obvious connection between crime  and  war? Crime  is vio­ lence.  So is punishment, and  so is war. People  who  go to war believe  that violence  works. So do criminals and  people who  want criminals punished. All these believe  violence  works  because  they also believe that domination is necessary. Somebody who is closer  to God,  natural wisdom, or scientific truth has to keep wayward subordinates in line, or social order  goes  to hell. The only  way to tame  the  social  beast  is for everyone to agree (by "social contract": see  Peter  Cardella's chapter) that everyone is at times  "entitled" to  be  subordinated  and   to  be  subordinator -ideally always   to  be  both subordinator and  subordinator in one's  proper place at all times.  This line of thinking appears in all religious and  political traditions: as in Confucianism versus  Taoism;  as  in  bureaucratism versus anarchy; and   as  in  old  Old lestament  worldly retribution versus, for  example,   the  Prophets or  the Sermon  on  the  Mount. It is also  known as  the  idea  of the  existence  of a chosen people   (Galtung, 1987)-in  matters of conflict,  some   people   are
1·ntitled to dictate  terms to some  other  lesser  human beings  and  to kill or
totally incapacitate them, if  necessary, to establish human virtue.
Pacifists in criminology and  criminal  justice can learn  from  one  another hy force of reason. So can retributionists. But to recognize that the kind  of niminologist one  is is fundamentally a matter  of religious preference is to
·;!'e that  reason   cannot dictate  whether a  criminologist chooses to  learn
wilhin  a paradigm of war or a paradigm of peacemaking. In 1967, I sat up l.ttl' one  night  with  a family  friend  whom Ilater  heard  had  been  head  of npt>rations in East  Asia  for the  CIA.  Back and  forth  we argued about  the
 It •mino theory. Finally, simultaneously, it hit us that unless I could  prove to
I11m  that the Communists would  not eventually land  in San Francisco if we
.ltd not stop  them  at the seventeenth parallel  in Vietnam,  he would find it llltjwrative to stop  the Communists now. And  unless he could  prove  to me iiJol   the  Communists would  land  in  San  Francisco,  I would continue to
our  withdrawal from Southeast Asia. We both knew  that the only
1  '"1nl  of any Lhi ng is hv  tautology, as in pure  math.  We laughed and  gave up
·'II , . ,·11 ollwr. wo; .111 experience for me to learn  the limits
td   li'ol  Oil.
.\·,  r. dic,d  lt'ttlllll'.l·.  ""'' Ill>II'   (:;o·•·.  lor  <'X   
Brock-Utne,  1989),
llw .It•· II\'<>   IIHI·. "I  .•  t•  1"                   :\·. ,.. _.,l,.,j, o :;  tlw cl.1im Ill being  the  true
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The Peacemaking Choice



   .• ·.m·h seminars at the  University of Oslo,  a number of
1      , ... ol   1i1e  criticism  of a survey of introductory-psychology
,,1,.1.  l<>rmation which  had  appeared in a leading U.S. social-
1    ..... ,.d.  "How   Unscientific," they  kept  saying. "The  author
, 1, 1   ,•I   the  students. How  could  he  have  known what  they
,      1,   , d   1    heir responses? Instead he just guessed in his statistical
·   ,   ""111ologist Les Wilkins  once  wrote, "Kings  and  queens have
,   ,      .. 11,  hers should not!" In one approach to knowledge, we make
1                 . "' ,r ·. "subjects" of our  own  definition of the  situation. We don't
" ,  1     ,  "      1   ..11  1    he study is about. We use statistical  traces they  have left to
1,  11   ,1.,.   know about  our subjects, rather  than  getting to know  them
1          ,. .     111  the other  approach, our  informants become our teachers. If
1  ..  1  .n·vent   another Ted  Bundy   from   killing  again,   we  need   to
1         ,         1          , 1,. 1       what Ted Bundy  did. If we badly  need  to understand what Ted
.. 1     ,  11,1    \Vl'  badly  need  to keep  him  alive and  engage in dialogue with
1  111      1·.   not  just  a  matter  of doing truly  scientific  research. It is an
1       1     ,   ,   ,    ,,  11  1,, learning which  permeates the social existence of the believer. It
1          .  11 '·II •:;  because  they  are  free  to engage in openly religious discoursl'
11,   ,1   11,. ·   Mennonites can see the quality of mediation we offer as the key to
.. ,ll•"tllng,  redressing, and  preventing future violence. "Reconciliation"
11      . 11  1·.   lo them a natural way of learning from conflict.  More  than  the form
11    ,  11      which   just  isn't the  same   when it is  sponsored by  the  Nation
  • 111   1111111'  of Justice  (see Maria Volpe's and Joe Scimecca's chapters)-it is tlw
    1  •111l    which  guides action  and   science  and  determines whether we  <11 span="span">
    1. ·" 11111g  how to make  bigger  and  better wars,  or bigger  and  better  peace.
    lh.1t is why  religious and  humanist traditions have been  chosen to ,,.,111
    "" in this volume. There  are  ways to talk about  paradigm choice  in cri1111
    11ology. I was a little too smug about  dropping the discussion with  my ('It\
    1   riend.  We could  not  appeal to one  another by what  radical  feministc; '.dl "male" reasoning. If we  were  to address honestly the  issue  of par we had  to rise to another level of discourse. That is, of cours1·, wh.!l theoretical physicists did  in the  early  part  of this  century as tlwy  lri< ·tl I" grapple with  quantum mechanics. They  turned to mct 
    < lid   II" ology, not because  they  had  burned out  and  were dropping out  ol ';''  "'•' but because  they  had  to rise above  paradigm;1tic dcb;Jlt' tu .1ddresc; i,;:.IH"·  ol
    choice.  They  were  in fact turned  on, .dtlwugh loo III.JIIY "I  II••   111 stopped asking  questions <1nd span="span" style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt;"> used  their  IH"Wiound wisdo111 I<>   l 111d11  1111
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    lit•  \'.lVI'"  l'"ir  of J,·,·lttn·:; (Ill llw :.11i1l''' I         (\Nt·lwl. I   'I lh)  l11   ..... "'"' 1       .1
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    of every  human being, and  that the choice is primarily a matter  of following one's  heart. Scientists should be  true  to  their  own  hearts. The  object  of religious discourse is to discover  what  truly  lies within  one's  heart.

    Religious and  Humanist Traditions

    In the  spirit  of confronting and  honestly discussing conflict,  and  at risk of embarrassing my much  esteemed friend  and  coeditor, I heard  many  a criminologist claim  that  Richard  Quinney had  flipped out  when   he  ex­ tended his much  admired and  cited Marxist  work to the theology of crime. Some  Marxists  were  angry that  he had  forsc1kcn them  and  tarnished their respectability. Richard  (who  has been Richard and  not a Marxist or a Christian or a Buddhist alone)  broke  the icc and  gave  many  of us  crimi­ nologists courage as  we  have  dared   ourselves to  become  avowedly   reli­ gious-as seekers rather  than  purveyors of religious truth.
    Richard's long  and  extensive search  for  understanding across  religious traditions is revealed in and  informs his chapter. Is he telling  us to be truly Buddhist  or  truly   Christian? Actually,   neither.  I ie  highlights Buddhist learning to show  that  religious  traditions arc essentially different ways of talking  about  the  same  truth.  He echoes the  famous  statement by Eugene V. Debs  that "while  there  is a soul  in prison 1 am not free."  But wait-Debs was an  atheist  socialist,   not  a  Buddhist. That's  the  point. Richard  is  not talking about  what  a Buddhist is; he is tc1lking about  Buddhist insight  into universal human experience.
    In an award  acceptance speech at the American Society  of Criminology, criminal  justice  reformer Jerry  Miller  (1988) put  Richard's  m point  this way: There   are  basically   two  kinds   of  criminologists,  those   who   think niminals are different from  themselves and  those  who  don't. You cannot
    ,;eparate  a  criminal's self-understanding  from  our  understanding of  the niminal. More  than   empathy, understanding  requires our  sympathy­
    .dlowing ourselves to feel the offender's pain  and  committing ourselves to
    I   rying  to alleviate  the  pain  for  us  both.  Buddhist teachers have  put  this
    111 '·ssage  beautifully.
    Why cite the  Buddhists? There  are two  reasons at least.  One  is to show ll1o1l   people  on  the  other  side  of the  world  from  the  contributors of this
    '<>It llllC  long ago reached the same conclusion as Jerry Miller. It should give
    11·.   p.mse  about   labeling   the  home   of  this  tradition "third  world," "less
    1, '\Tiorwd," "undnd,·v,·lorwd" or"developing." Drawing on faraway  tradi-
    1"''•:;  III.JV  )',ivt·  11:; .1  IIIII,·   111""' n·spl'd for the  humanity of their  bearers, ""I  111.d·.•· il  " Ill I  It- I• ..... I    ,J, ·t.d ,J, · 11 .11  we livl' wt•ll at their expense. The other I•'·'··"" 1•;  111.11  11'1111,·   ,,.,, 1   f\ldl,.,  , .. 1.111·111)',  .d>t tll hl'ing <1 span="span" style="mso-spacerun: yes;">   
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    304                                                                                              The Peacemaking Choice



    prosecutors, and  correctional workers be  equitable and   just.  This  is ele­ mental to Buddhists but  not necessarily to current bearers of Greco-Judeo­ Christian tradition.  The  Buddhists tell  it  like  it  is,  not  in  some   crimi­ nological  compartment, but  as  a matter  of how  human beings get  along anywhere, anytime. They  make  a statement that  radical  feminists, anar­ chists, socialists, humanists,  and  members of peace  churches can  readily accept  as one  way of stating  their  own  position.
    Those  metaphysical physicists were  concerned with  basic issues of defi­
    nition: what  is mass,  what  is energy? Criminologists could  use a good  dose of the  same  reflection. Our  most  basic  issue  is: What  is crime?  And  by extension: Why  do  we  use  that  word? What  do  we feel when we  use  it? What  do  we intend to accomplish by  using  it? Richard  offers  us an  idea: Crime   is  suffering passed on  from  one  person to  another; one  kind  of suffering becomes another; we  have  to suffer  with  the  criminal  to put  an end  to the suffering the criminal  inflicts on others. As long as we persist in trying to make  the criminal  suffer  for us,  the problem will get worse.
    East meets West again  in a somewhat different way in Kevin Anderson's
    secular humanist analysis of the  eschatological premises of an  avowedly religious revolutionary, Mahatma Gandhi, and  an avowedly atheist  revolu­ tionary, Karl Marx.  It is ludicrous to deny  that  Gandhi, Marx,  and  Ander­ son  are considering fundamental issues of the  ultimate purpose of human existence. It is one  thing to  reject  certain institutional forms of religious expression, another  to  decline   to  discuss issues because   they  are  basic human concerns. Kevin like Richard  aims to free us from  these  bounds 011 discourse in criminology. And  when we do, seemingly opposing position•; may   suddenly  become complementary and   mutually  informing likc· Gandhi's and  Marx's.
    The  contrast between  the  "Marxists"  Kevin  criticizes   and   the  radic·.d
    humanism he espouses is inherent in his research method. Kevin analF·'·  . the  writings, statements, and  practices of both  men  in  their  entird y,  111 historical perspective,  to  distill  their   personalities and   hence   their  c'l 11 beliefs.  The "Marxists" take some  unit  of Marx's many  writings and  l'IH·1" lc · it as  an  independent variable,  whose value  is taken  for  granted. 1<1 span="span" style="letter-spacing: .45pt;"> ·. own   method of learning from  Gandhi and  Marx  is an  exampl1· PI   II"'' people learn  in Gandhi's utopian village and  Marx's utopian commlllll'
    In criminal courts as in Kevin's  research, turning crime  into  pc'.lll' ,., 111
    essence a matter  of how  people learn. Those  who  assunH· llwy k11ow  '''11.11 this  "normal case"  (Sudnow, 196.5)  means      
    w<11tior: span="span" style="letter-spacing: .05pt;"> .11    lw. ri  o111tl     111 action.  Those  who  assume the  need  to undcrst;md niH' .lllollll'r  111  111.cll•'
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    '"'"L"" 1
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    this,  but for myself I also find that Gandhi is right on one point  of disagree­ ment  with  Marx: Peacemaking must  be evolutionary, built from  the bottom up,  rather   than   imposed by  revolution.  The  method is  the  end.   Kevin observes how  prominent women were  in Gandhi's marches. To the  femi­ nists  whose contributions are  discussed below  recognize, this  is the  ulti­ mate  extension of satyagraha (Gandhi's nonviolent action).  Unless  we can make  peace  in  the  privacy  of our  own  homes, men  with  women, adults with  children and  with  older  people, we cannot build  peace outside in our other  workplaces and  in our  nations. Research  on  peacemaking in crimi­ nology  thus  becomes the study of how  and  where  people manage to make peace,  under the assumption that the principles that create or destroy peace are the same from  the Smith  family kitchen to the Pentagon and  the prison. By these  examples we hope  to be able to create  more  peace of our  own.
    This is the very theme of Peter Cardella's chapter. Peter tells us about  the Anabaptists, and  especially about  the  Mennonites, who  as Russ  Immar­ igeon also tells us have pioneered the use of mediation and  reconciliation as an alternative to North American criminal  justice in  their  Victim Offender Reconciliation  Programs (VORPs).
    Now  that I've settled in Indiana, I am proud of the tradition of the peace churches in this state.  "Peace churches" refers to Christian sects whose members-as Peter  tells  us-are committed to  one  law  only,  the  law  of agape-to love one's  neighbor as oneself.  Among them  the  Church of the Brethren established  the  first  degree  program  in  peace  studies in  the United  States at Manchester College in 1948.  The Quakers have established an  internationally prominent peace  studies program at Earlham College. The Mennonite Central Committee is in Elkhart. Even in a church that  is not known as a peace church, the Catholics  have established a major  peace studies center just down the road from  Elkhart  at Notre  Dame,  directed by tormer  Ohio  Governor John  Gilligan.  And  good  Amish  people live among
    us throughout the  state.
    Peter  concludes by  observing that  even  those   peace  church members who live in relative  isolation, like the Hutterites or the  Amish,  live "mutu­
    .dist"  lives  not  to  live  perfect  lives  themselves but  to  show people   in  a
    I  roubled  world  that  "community lived  in  mutuality is possible." More  to llw point, community lived in mutuality exists and  is substantial even in as
    onservative  a  state   as  Indiana.  We  nonbelievers  just  don't pay  much
    .II ftontion  to  it.  Living  a  life committed  to  love  rather   than   violence  is llwrdorc not  ju:;l soml'  utopian romantic idea.  It is a long  accomplished
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    I I '  t    I II It .  I t   I    t   H I I I ' ' 'I I I I I' 1         I I I'

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